## HackerRank: Taum and B’day

### Problem

Taum is planning to celebrate the birthday of his friend, Diksha. There are two types of gifts that Diksha wants from Taum: one is black and the other is white. To make her happy, Taum has to buy B number of black gifts and W number of white gifts.

• The cost of each black gift is X units.
• The cost of every white gift is Y units.
• The cost of converting each black gift into white gift or vice versa is Z units.

Help Taum by deducing the minimum amount he needs to spend on Diksha’s gifts.

Input Format

The first line will contain an integer T which will be the number of test cases.
There will be T pairs of lines. The first line of each test case will contain the values of integers B and W. Another line of each test case will contain the values of integers X, Y, and Z.

Constraints
1T10
0X,Y,Z,B,W10^9

Output Format

T lines, each containing an integer: the minimum amount of units Taum needs to spend on gifts.

Sample Input

5
10 10
1 1 1
5 9
2 3 4
3 6
9 1 1
7 7
4 2 1
3 3
1 9 2

Sample Output

20
37
12
35
12

Explanation

• Sample Case #01: There is no benefit to converting the white gifts into black or the black gifts into white, so Taum will have to buy each gift for 1 unit. So cost of buying all gifts will be: 101+101=20.
• Sample Case #02: Again, we can’t decrease the cost of black or white gifts by converting colors. We will buy gifts at their original price. So cost of buying all gifts will be: 52+93=10+27=37.
• Sample Case #03: We will buy white gifts at their original price, 1. For black gifts, we will first buy white one and color them to black, so that their cost will be reduced to 1+1=2. So cost of buying all gifts will be: 32+61=12.
• Sample Case #04: Similarly, we will buy white gifts at their original price, 2. For black gifts, we will first buy white one and color them to black, so that their cost will be reduced to 2+1=3. So cost of buying all gifts will be: 73+72=35.
• Sample Case #05: We will buy black gifts at their original price, 1. For white gifts, we will first black gifts worth 1 unit and color them to white with another 2 units, so cost for white gifts is reduced to 3 units. So cost of buying all gifts will be: 31+33=3+9=12.

Solution

## HackerRank: Extra Long Factorials

### Problem

You are given an integer N. Print the factorial of this number.

N!=N×(N1)×(N2)××3×2×1

Input
Input consists of a single integer N, where 1N100.

Output
Print the factorial of N.

Example
For an input of 25, you would print 15511210043330985984000000

Note: Factorials of N>20 can’t be stored even in a 64bit long long variable. Big integers must be used for such calculations. Languages like Java, Python, Ruby etc. can handle big integers, but we need to write additional code in C/C++ to handle huge values.

We recommend solving this challenge using BigIntegers.

## HackerRank: CodeWhiz.java March 2016: Serve the Students

### Problem

In this problem, there are 22 types of events: ENTER (a student enters the queue) or SERVED.

A unique token is assigned to any student entering the queue. The queue serves the students based on the following criteria:

1. The student having the highest Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is served first.
2. Any students having the same CGPA will be served by name in ascending case-sensitive alphabetical order.
3. Any students having the same CGPA and name will be served in ascending token order.

Given a sequence of nn events, print the names of students who are yet to be served(based on above criteria). If the queue is empty, print EMPTY.

Input Format

The first line of input contains an integer, nn, denoting the total number of events. Each of the nn subsequent lines will be of the following two forms:

1. ENTER name CGPA token – The student to be inserted into the priority queue.
2. SERVED – The highest priority student in the queue was served.

Constraints

• 2n1000
• 0CGPA4.00 where CGPAR
• 1token(i)10where each token(i) is a unique integer.
• 2|name|30

Output Format

Print the names (based on the criteria) of the students who are not served at all after executing all n events; if every student in the queue was served, then print EMPTY.

Sample Input

12
ENTER John 3.75 50
ENTER Mark 3.8 24
ENTER Shafaet 3.7 35
SERVED
SERVED
ENTER Samiha 3.85 36
SERVED
ENTER Ashley 3.9 42
ENTER Maria 3.6 46
ENTER Anik 3.95 49
ENTER Dan 3.95 50
SERVED

Sample Output

Dan
Ashley
Shafaet
Maria

Explanation

Let’s call our queue Q.

n0: We add John to the empty queue.
Q0={(John, 3.75, 50)}

n1: We add Mark to the queue; Q1={(John, 3.75, 50),(Mark, 3.8, 24)

n2: We add Shafaet to the queue; Q2={(John, 3.75, 50),(Mark, 3.8, 24),(Shafaet, 3.7, 35)}

n3: Mark is served as he has the highest CGPA; P3={(John, 3.75, 50),(Shafaet, 3.7, 35)}

n4: John is served next as he has the highest CGPA; P4={(Shafaet, 3.7, 35)}

n5: We add Samiha to the queue; Q2={(Shafaet, 3.7, 35),(Samiha, 3.85, 36)}

n6: Samiha is served as she has the highest CGPA; P6={(Shafaet, 3.7, 35)}

n7 through n10, the next four students are added giving us:  Q10={(Shafaet, 3.7, 35),(Ashley, 3.9, 42),(Maria, 3.6, 46),(Anik, 3.95, 49),(Dan, 3.95, 50)}

n11: Anik is served because though both Anil and Dan have the highest CGPA but Anik comes first when sorted in alphabetic order; P11={(Dan, 3.95, 50),(Ashley, 3.9, 42),(Shafaet, 3.7, 35),(Maria, 3.6, 46)}

As all events are completed, we print names of each remaining students on a new line.

## HackerRank: CodeWhiz.java March 2016: Maximum and Minimum

### Problem

The locked code in your editor passes array A (of size N) and index i to the print method, whose try block attempts to print element A[i]; if i is Out-of-Range, an Array Index Out Of Bounds Exception is thrown.

Complete the code in your editor so that it prints the maximum and minimum elements in array A—regardless of whether or not an exception is thrown.

Input Format

The first line contains an integer, N, the number of elements in A.
The second line contains N space-separated integers describing A.
The third line contains an index, i, to be accessed.

Note: Input from stdin handled by the locked code in the editor.

Constraints

• 1N100
• 1000Aj1000 where 1jN

Output Format

The try block will print the value accessed at A[i]; if an Exception is thrown, it will be printed by the locked code in your editor.
You must print the respective maximum and minimum values in array A as a single pair of space-separated integers on a new line—regardless of whether an exception is thrown.

Note: Observe that your max/min values may print on either the first or second line, depending on whether or not an Exception was thrown!

Sample Input 0

12
-12 0 1 -899 23 45 96 10 75 23 0 33
100

Sample Output 0

96 -899
java.lang.ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException

Sample Input 1

10
4 908 -05 445 -208 325 -2 -718 863 400
9

Sample Output 1

400
908 -718

Explanation

Sample 0:
N=12, i=100, maximum(A)=96, and minimum(A)=899
A‘s indices range from 0 to 11, so attempting to access index 100 throws an Exception. The maximum and minimum values in the array are printed on a new line as a pair of space-separated integers. The program’s control flow then returns to main where the the Exception is caught and printed on a new line.

Sample 1:
N=10, i=9, maximum(A)=908, and minimum(A)=718
A‘s indices range from 0 to 9, so an attempt to access index 9 will be successful and the value at A[9] (i.e.: 400) is printed on a new line. The program’s control flow then proceeds to print the maximum and minimum values in A as a pair of space-separated integers on a new line.

## HackerRank: CodeWhiz.java March 2016: Java Singleton

### Problem

“The singleton pattern is a design pattern that restricts the instantiation of a class to one object. This is useful when exactly one object is needed to coordinate actions across the system.”
Wikipedia: Singleton Pattern

Complete the Singleton class in your editor which contains the following components:

1. A private Singleton non parameterized constructor.
2. A public String instance variable named strstr.
3. Write a static method named getSingleInstance that returns the single instance of theSingleton class.

Once submitted, our hidden Solution class will check your code by taking a String as input and then using yourSingleton class to print a line.

Input Format

You will not be handling any input in this challenge.

Output Format

You will not be producing any output in this challenge.

Sample Input

hello world

Sample Output

Hello I am a singleton! Let me say hello world to you