Apache Ignite: What is Ignite?

Apache Ignite(TM) In-Memory Data Fabric is a high-performance, integrated and distributed in-memory platform for computing and transacting on large-scale data sets in real-time, orders of magnitude faster than possible with traditional disk-based or flash-based technologies.



You can view Ignite as a collection of independent, well-integrated, in-memory components geared to improve performance and scalability of your application. Some of these components include:

Apache Ignite APIs

Apache Ignite has a reach set of APIs that are covered throughout the documentation. The APIs are implemented in a form of native libraries for such major languages and technologies as Java, .NET and C++ and by supporting a variety of protocols like REST, Memcached or Redis.

The documentation that is located under this domain is mostly related to Java. Refer to the following documentation sections and domains to learn more about alternative technologies and protocols you can use to connect to and work with an Apache Ignite cluster:

Fork It on GIT

Apache Commons DbUtils Mini Wrapper

This is a very small DB Connector code in Java as a wrapper class to Apache DBUtils.

The Commons DbUtils library is a small set of classes designed to make working with JDBC easier. JDBC resource cleanup code is mundane, error prone work so these classes abstract out all of the cleanup tasks from your code leaving you with what you really wanted to do with JDBC in the first place: query and update data.

Some of the advantages of using DbUtils are:

  • No possibility for resource leaks. Correct JDBC coding isn’t difficult but it is time-consuming and tedious. This often leads to connection leaks that may be difficult to track down.
  • Cleaner, clearer persistence code. The amount of code needed to persist data in a database is drastically reduced. The remaining code clearly expresses your intention without being cluttered with resource cleanup.
  • Automatically populate Java Bean properties from Result Sets. You don’t need to manually copy column values into bean instances by calling setter methods. Each row of the Result Set can be represented by one fully populated bean instance.

DbUtils is designed to be:

  • Small – you should be able to understand the whole package in a short amount of time.
  • Transparent – DbUtils doesn’t do any magic behind the scenes. You give it a query, it executes it and cleans up for you.
  • Fast – You don’t need to create a million temporary objects to work with DbUtils.

DbUtils is not:

  • An Object/Relational bridge – there are plenty of good O/R tools already. DbUtils is for developers looking to use JDBC without all the mundane pieces.
  • A Data Access Object (DAO) framework – DbUtils can be used to build a DAO framework though.
  • An object oriented abstraction of general database objects like a Table, Column, or Primary Key.
  • A heavyweight framework of any kind – the goal here is to be a straightforward and easy to use JDBC helper library.


HackerRank: ACM ICPC Team


You are given a list of N people who are attending ACM-ICPC World Finals. Each of them are either well versed in a topic or they are not. Find out the maximum number of topics a 2-person team can know. And also find out how many teams can know that maximum number of topics.

Note Suppose a, b, and c are three different people, then (a,b) and (b,c) are counted as two different teams.

Input Format

The first line contains two integers, N and M, separated by a single space, where N represents the number of people, and M represents the number of topics. N lines follow.
Each line contains a binary string of length M. If the ith line’s jth character is 11, then the ith person knows the jth topic; otherwise, he doesn’t know the topic.


Output Format

On the first line, print the maximum number of topics a 2-person team can know.
On the second line, print the number of 2-person teams that can know the maximum number of topics.

Sample Input

4 5

Sample Output



(1, 3) and (3, 4) know all the 5 topics. So the maximal topics a 2-person team knows is 5, and only 2 teams can achieve this.


HackerRank: Lisa’s Workbook


Lisa just got a new math workbook. A workbook contains exercise problems, grouped into chapters.

  • There are n chapters in Lisa’s workbook, numbered from 1 to n.
  • The i-th chapter has ti problems, numbered from 1 to ti.
  • Each page can hold up to k problems. There are no empty pages or unnecessary spaces, so only the last page of a chapter may contain fewer than k problems.
  • Each new chapter starts on a new page, so a page will never contain problems from more than one chapter.
  • The page number indexing starts at 1.

Lisa believes a problem to be special if its index (within a chapter) is the same as the page number where it’s located. Given the details for Lisa’s workbook, can you count its number of special problems?

Note: See the diagram in the Explanation section for more details.

Input Format

The first line contains two integers n and k — the number of chapters and the maximum number of problems per page respectively.
The second line contains n integers t1,t2,,tn where ti denotes the number of problems in the ii-th chapter.


  • 1n,k,ti100

Output Format

Print the number of special problems in Lisa’s workbook.

Sample Input

5 3  
4 2 6 1 10

Sample Output



The diagram below depicts Lisa’s workbook with n=chapters and a maximum of k=3 problems per page. Special problems are outlined in red, and page numbers are in yellow squares.

There are 4 special problems and thus we print the number 4 on a new line.


HackerRank: Manasa and Stones


Manasa is out on a hike with friends. She finds a trail of stones with numbers on them. She starts following the trail and notices that two consecutive stones have a difference of either a or b. Legend has it that there is a treasure trove at the end of the trail and if Manasa can guess the value of the last stone, the treasure would be hers. Given that the number on the first stone was 0, find all the possible values for the number on the last stone.

Note: The numbers on the stones are in increasing order.

Input Format
The first line contains an integer T, i.e. the number of test cases. T test cases follow; each has 3 lines. The first line contains nn (the number of stones). The second line contains a, and the third line contains b.

Output Format
Space-separated list of numbers which are the possible values of the last stone in increasing order.


Sample Input


Sample Output

2 3 4 
30 120 210 300 


All possible series for the first test case are given below:

  1. 0,1,2
  2. 0,1,3
  3. 0,2,3
  4. 0,2,4

Hence the answer 2 3 4.

Series with different number of final steps for second test case are the following:

  1. 0, 10, 20, 30
  2. 0, 10, 20, 120
  3. 0, 10, 110, 120
  4. 0, 10, 110, 210
  5. 0, 100, 110, 120
  6. 0, 100, 110, 210
  7. 0, 100, 200, 210
  8. 0, 100, 200, 300

Hence the answer 30 120 210 300.


Original solution source

System Design Interview Prep Material

System design is a very broad topic. Even a software engineer with many years of working experience at top IT company may not be an expert on system design. If you want to become an expert, you need to read many books, articles, and solve real large scale system design problems. This repository only teaches you to handle the system design interview with a systematic approach in a short time. You can dive into each topic if you have time. Of course, welcome to add your thoughts!

Table of Contents

System Design Interview Tips:

  • Clarify the constraints and identify the user cases Spend a few minutes questioning the interviewer and agreeing on the scope of the system. Remember to make sure you know all the requirements the interviewer didn’t tell your about in the beginning. User cases indicate the main functions of the system, and constraints list the scale of the system such as requests per second, requests types, data written per second, data read per second.
  • High-level architecture design Sketch the important components and the connections between them, but don’t go into some details. Usually, a scalable system includes web server (load balancer), service (service partition), database (master/slave database cluster plug cache).
  • Component design For each component, you need to write the specific APIs for each component. You may need to finish the detailed OOD design for a particular function. You may also need to design the database schema for the database.

Basic Knowledge about System Design:

Here are some articles about system design related topics.

Of course, if you want to dive into system related topics, here is a good collection of reading list about services-engineering, and a good collection of material about distributed systems.

Company Engineering Blogs:

If you are going to have an onsite with a company, you should read their engineering blog.

Products and Systems:

The following papers/articles/slides can help you to understand the general design idea of different real products and systems.

Hot Questions and Reference:

There are some good references for each question. The references here are slides and articles.
Design a CDN network Reference:

Design a Google document system Reference:

Design a random ID generation system Reference:

Design a key-value database Reference:

Design the Facebook news feed function Reference:

Design the Facebook timeline function Reference:

Design a function to return the top k requests during past time interval Reference:

Design an online multiplayer card game Reference:

Design a graph search function Reference:

Design a picture sharing system Reference:

Design a search engine Reference:

Design a recommendition system Reference:

Design a tinyurl system Reference:

Design a garbage collection system Reference:

Design a scalable web crawling system Reference:

Design the Facebook chat function Reference:

Design a trending topic system Reference:

Design a cache system Reference:

Good Books:

Object Oriented Design:

Tips for OOD Interview

Clarify the scenario, write out user cases Use case is a description of sequences of events that, taken together, lead to a system doing something useful. Who is going to use it and how they are going to use it. The system may be very simple or very complicated. Special system requirements such as multi-threading, read or write oriented.
Define objects Map identity to class: one scenario for one class, each core object in this scenario for one class. Consider the relationships among classes: certain class must have unique instance, one object has many other objects (composition), one object is another object (inheritance). Identify attributes for each class: change noun to variable and action to methods. Use design patterns such that it can be reused in multiple applications.

Useful Websites

Original Source

HackerRank: Find Single Integer out of an Array

Problem Statement

Given an array of integers, every element appears twice except for one. Find that single one.

Note: Your algorithm should have a linear runtime complexity. Could you implement it without using extra memory?

Example :

Input : [1 2 2 3 1]
Output : 3



The basic logic that A XOR A = 0 means that means all the doubles will be XOR’ed out to 0 and the remaining number will be the result of the XOR.

The Fuck

Magnificent app which corrects your previous console command, inspired by a @liamosaur tweet.

Few more examples:

➜ apt-get install vim
E: Could not open lock file /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (13: Permission denied)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/), are you root?

➜ fuck
sudo apt-get install vim [enter/↑/↓/ctrl+c]
[sudo] password for nvbn:
Reading package lists... Done
➜ git push
fatal: The current branch master has no upstream branch.
To push the current branch and set the remote as upstream, use

    git push --set-upstream origin master

➜ fuck
git push --set-upstream origin master [enter/↑/↓/ctrl+c]
Counting objects: 9, done.
➜ puthon
No command 'puthon' found, did you mean:
 Command 'python' from package 'python-minimal' (main)
 Command 'python' from package 'python3' (main)
zsh: command not found: puthon

➜ fuck
python [enter/↑/↓/ctrl+c]
Python 3.4.2 (default, Oct  8 2014, 13:08:17)
➜ git brnch
git: 'brnch' is not a git command. See 'git --help'.

Did you mean this?

➜ fuck
git branch [enter/↑/↓/ctrl+c]
* master
➜ lein rpl
'rpl' is not a task. See 'lein help'.

Did you mean this?

➜ fuck
lein repl [enter/↑/↓/ctrl+c]
nREPL server started on port 54848 on host - nrepl://
REPL-y 0.3.1



What is Gearman?

Gearman provides a generic application framework to farm out work to other machines or processes that are better suited to do the work. It allows you to do work in parallel, to load balance processing, and to call functions between languages. It can be used in a variety of applications, from high-availability web sites to the transport of database replication events. In other words, it is the nervous system for how distributed processing communicates. A few strong points about Gearman:

  • Open Source It’s free! (in both meanings of the word) Gearman has an active open source community that is easy to get involved with if you need help or want to contribute. Worried about licensing? Gearman is BSD.
  • Multi-language – There are interfaces for a number of languages, and this list is growing. You also have the option to write heterogeneous applications with clients submitting work in one language and workers performing that work in another.
  • Flexible – You are not tied to any specific design pattern. You can quickly put together distributed applications using any model you choose, one of those options being Map/Reduce.
  • Fast – Gearman has a simple protocol and interface with an optimized, and threaded, server written in C/C++ to minimize your application overhead.
  • Embeddable – Since Gearman is fast and lightweight, it is great for applications of all sizes. It is also easy to introduce into existing applications with minimal overhead.
  • No single point of failure – Gearman can not only help scale systems, but can do it in a fault tolerant way.
  • No limits on message size – Gearman supports single messages up to 4gig in size. Need to do something bigger? No problem Gearman can chunk messages.
  • Worried about scaling? – Don’t worry about it with Gearman. Craig’s List, Tumblr, Yelp, Etsy,… discover what others have known for years.

Content is being updated regularly, so please check back often. You may also want to check out other forms of communication if you would like to learn more or get involved!

How Does Gearman Work?

Gearman Architecture

A Gearman powered application consists of three parts: a client, a worker, and a job server. The client is responsible for creating a job to be run and sending it to a job server. The job server will find a suitable worker that can run the job and forwards the job on. The worker performs the work requested by the client and sends a response to the client through the job server. Gearman provides client and worker APIs that your applications call to talk with the Gearman job server (also known as gearmand) so you don’t need to deal with networking or mapping of jobs. Internally, the Gearman client and worker APIs communicate with the job server using TCP sockets. To explain how Gearman works in more detail, lets look at a simple application that will reverse the order of characters in a string. The example is given in PHP, although other APIs will look quite similar.

How Is Gearman Useful?

Gearman Working

You can use Gearman as an interface between a client and a worker written in different languages. If you want your PHP web application to call a function written in C, you could use the PHP client API with the C worker API, and stick a job server in the middle.

Gearman can also be useful when the worker code is put on a separate machine (or cluster of machines) that are better suited to do the work.
Say your PHP web application wants to do image conversion, but this is too much processing to run it on the web server machines.
You could instead ship the image off to a separate set of worker machines to do the conversion, this way the load does not impact the performance of your web server and other PHP scripts. By doing this, you also get a natural form of load balancing since the job server only sends new jobs to idle workers. If all the workers running on a given machine are busy, you don’t need to worry about new jobs being sent there. This makes scale-out with multi-core servers quite simple. You may have 16 cores on a worker machine. Start up 16 instances of your worker (or perhaps more if they are not CPU bound). It is also seamless to add new machines to expand your worker pool, just boot them up, install the worker code, and have them connect to the existing job server.

For more details on specific uses and installations, go to Gearman’s examples page.